The Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service
The temporal lobes are involved in the primary organization of sensory input (Read, 1981). Individuals with temporal lobe lesions have difficulty placing words or pictures into categories.
Language can be effected by temporal lobe damage. Left temporal lesions disturb recognition of words. Right temporal damage can cause a loss of inhibition of talking.
The temporal lobes are highly associated with memory skills. Left temporal lesions result in impaired memory for verbal material. Right side lesions result in recall of non-verbal material, such as music and drawings.
Either side of the head above the ears.
- Hearing ability
- Memory acquisition
- Some visual perceptions
- Categorization of objects.
- Difficulty in recognizing faces (Prosopagnosia).
- Difficulty in understanding spoken words (Wernicke’s Aphasia).
- Disturbance with selective attention to what we see and hear.
- Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects.
- Short-term memory loss.
- Interference with long-term memory
- Increased or decreased interest in sexual behaviour.
- Inability to categorize objects (Categorization).
- Right lobe damage can cause persistent talking.
The parietal lobes can be divided into two functional regions. One involves sensation and perception and the other is concerned with integrating sensory input, primarily with the visual system. The first function integrates sensory information to form a single percept (cognition). The second function constructs a spatial coordinate system to represent the world around us.
Top of the head towards the back.
- Location for visual attention.
- Location for touch perception.
- Goal directed voluntary movements.
- Manipulation of objects in space.
- Integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single concept.
- Inability to attend to more than one object at a time.
- Inability to name an object (Anomia).
- Inability to locate the words for writing (Agraphia).
- Problems with reading (Alexia).
- Difficulty with drawing objects.
- Difficulty in distinguishing left from right.
- Difficulty with doing mathematics (Dyscalculia).
- Lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space (Apraxia) that leads to difficulties in self-care.
- Inability to focus visual attention.
- Difficulties with eye and hand co-ordination.
The occipital lobes are the centre of our visual perception system. They are not particularly vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the brain, although any significant trauma to the brain could produce subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects and scotomas.
Most posterior, at the back of the head.
- Defects in vision (Visual Field Deficits).
- Difficulty with locating objects in environment.
- Difficulty with identifying colours (Colour Agnosia).
- Production of hallucinations
- Visual illusions – inaccurately seeing objects.
- Word blindness – inability to recognize words.
- Difficulty in recognizing drawn objects.
- Inability to recognize the movement of an object (Movement Agnosia).
- Difficulties with reading and writing.